Social Model of Disability

lived experiences

Today’s entry in the Lexicon features the social model of disability. Much of what I have to say here dovetails nicely with the entry on medicalization.

For much of the last two centuries, disability has been understood in social terms according to an allopathic medical model. By this I mean to say that disabilty has perpetually been defined as a pathology, as a lack, as a dysfunction. Plato argues in the Republic that one cannot define justice without experiencing injustice, and disability has generally been comprehended in terms of the lack of function that a “normal” person might enjoy. A person whose foot has been amputated is therefore disabled because they lack the function that a “normal” person with two feet would enjoy in that foot.

Over the last several decades (or even less — disability studies is quite a young field of inquiry), theorists have begun to challenge this medical model of disability. They argue, instead, that disability is largely socially constructed, that it is a function of social practices and attitudes rather than actual physical impairment. What does this mean?

Consider, for example, what the lived experience of disability would be like if every building was accessible to disabled persons, if every bathroom in every building was accessible. What if every curb had adequate cuts for persons in wheelchairs? What if all public schools provided adequate access to interpreters fluent in sign language? What if all restaurants had menus in Braille?

The point, which to me seems undeniable as far as it goes, is that some of the lived experiences of disability are constructed by the social realities of living as a disabled person. If, for example, every building was actually accessible to persons in wheelchairs, the limitations resulting from the person’s impairment would be profoundly different. The accuracy of this perspective is apparent in the divergent experiences of disabled persons touring countries with widely different accessibility profiles. In Great Britain or the Scandinavian nations, for example, which generally spend much more time, effort, and $$ in enhancing accessibility, the extent of the limitations for a disabled persons is likely to very different than, for example, in the U.S. or Japan.

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10 Steps to Superior Health

which will

HOW WELL IS WELL? Perhaps you have never asked yourself this question.

Think about it a moment and doing so may start a train of thought which will carry you into a state of happiness you have not known before. When do you think of yourself as being well? When you are free from aches and pains? The questions which could be asked are many, but the big question is: Even if you are free from aches and pains and are able to do your regular work without exhaustion, is it possible for you to feel still better?

The sign of well-being is mental and physical vitality, when you can throw your entire enthusiastic self into anything you do whether work or play; when your mind is free from worry, because you accept the problems of the day as a challenge instead of approaching them with fear; when your heart is free from hatred because you have eyes which look only for the good in others; and when your todays are better than your yesterdays, and your tomorrows are looked forward to with joyous anticipation.

Following are ten simple steps for radiant mental and physical health, which are all you need to develop a health consciousness:

1. Have an incentive to want to be actively alive—on top of the world. We can do almost anything if we really want to. This applies to physical well-being as much as it does to anything else. We might go through the motions of doing things intended for better health, but, unless our actions are backed by a burning desire to succeed, we need not look for spectacular and glowing results.

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10 Signs of a Healthy Relationship

with each

Is your relationship healthy? Take a few minutes to read through this article and see how your relationship is doing.

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“My parents had a very good relationship,” I often hear my clients say.

“What do you mean by good?” I ask.

“They didn’t fight. They spent a lot of time with each other.”

That may have been the definition of a good relationship years ago, but now most people want more. Following are ten signs of a healthy relationship.


Is kindness more important to each of you than having your way, being in control, or being right? Do you each receive joy out of being kind to each other? Being kind rather than controlling with each other is essential for a healthy relationship.


Do you and your partner well up with warmth and fullness of heart for each other and express it with affection? Are you each able to see the beautiful essence within each other, rather than just the faults? Are you able to get beyond the outer to the unique inner Self of each other? Do you enjoy sharing affection? Warmth and affection are vital for a healthy relationship.


Can the two of you laugh and play together? Do you appreciate and enjoy each other’s sense of humor? In the midst of difficulties, can you help each other to lighten up with humor? Can you let down and be playful with each other, letting yourselves be like kids together? Laughter and fun play a huge role in a healthy relationship.


Are you both each other’s favorite person to spend time with? Are you motivated to set aside time just to be together?

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10 Steps to Remember When Eating at a Chinese Restaurant

Chinese cuisine

We may think Chinese cuisine is healthy because it contains large amounts of vegetables and it seems to be low in fat. That it’s true of Traditional Chinese cuisine; however, it may not be the case of the food served at many American-Chinese restaurants.


Chinese food appeals to many of us because it is tasty and relatively inexpensive. We are also under the impression that Chinese cuisine is healthy as it includes large portions of vegetables and low amounts of fat. That’s true when the dishes are prepared the traditional Chinese way in China. But American-Chinese restaurants have modified their food for American tastes and as a result, it is not as healthy as the traditional one. Western Chinese restaurants offer appetizers, fried rice, meat rolled in butter, and sweet sauces among their “goodies”. And to top it all, the portions are much larger than the ones served in mainland China. That’s why, having all this in mind, if you want to eat healthy at a Chinese restaurant, you have to choose wisely.

1. Start by choosing a good restaurant

When you are in the mood for Chinese food, avoid the typical Chinese restaurant where you can eat as much as you want for a fix price. Chances are you may not want to leave the restaurant until you feel you got your money’s worth. Unfortunately, if you do so, the restaurant will get your money but you will get the calories. Not a win-win situation. Instead, go to a restaurant where the waiter takes your order.

2. Start with a soup

A smart move when eating at a Chinese restaurant is to order a soup. Two advantages: first, less overall fat in your meal and second, the soup broth will fill you up. This translates into eating less when the waiter brings the main course.

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10 Signs Of Cheating In A Relationship & How To Get Real Evidence Today!

someone else

There can be many different signs of cheating in a relationship and signs that are obvious in one relationship may not trigger warning bells in another relationship. However there are some signs of cheating in a relationship that are pretty standard across the board.

1.A Change In Behavior Towards You – Very critical of you, Starts fights to leave etc.

2.Finding Evidence – Condoms, random phone numbers, other peoples scent on clothes.

3.More Time Away From Home – Cheaters need time to cheat, what’s their excuse?

4.Increased Time Online – Is your partner “Protective” of their internet behavior.

5.Arriving Home Fresh – Has your partner ever arrived home smelling of a fresh shower.

6.Phone Behavior- Won’t allow you access to cell phone and takes some calls in private.

7.New Self Interest- All of a sudden, New clothes, gym, new haircut and deodorant etc.

8.Lack Of Interest At Home- vague,non loving, You can tell they want to be elsewhere.

9.Threatens To Leave- You may not be that important to them if they have someone else.

10.Your Gut Feeling – What is it saying deep down inside you.


Your partner and their lover will need to use traditional methods of contacting each other to chat and arrange their meeting times\places and this is your golden opportunity to find out the truth fast on weather or not they are cheating, and if they are then where, who with and when.

cheating relationship


Due to modern technology it is now possible to find out all of their cell phone activities. What numbers were called and received, what all incoming and outgoing text messages said. When it comes to the home you can monitor everything that happens on your home line eg: Number called/received and record all calls and even the ability to silently call in and listen to whatever is happening inside certain rooms of your house from anywhere in the world.

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10 Signs of Pregnancy

signs pregnancy

Do you want to learn know the 10 signs of pregnancy that will ease your mind about the much awaited good news? Your body will give you some signals which will help you understand, that you have conceived. The following article will help you understand the top 10 signs of pregnancy.

Motherhood is one of the much awaited phase of life for many women. Friends and relatives who become pregnant, always claim they knew they were pregnant the moment they conceived. Is it possible to understand you are pregnant because of your motherly instincts or does your body tell you in its own sweet way, ‘Girl, you are pregnant!’. Well, your body sure does give certain hints about pregnancy. You can keep an eye on top 10 signs of pregnancy and be sure that you may be pregnant. Read on the following ten signs of pregnancy and be sure, if you have a new arrival on its way.

First 10 Signs of Pregnancy

There are 10 early signs of pregnancy that you should watch out for. These symptoms may or may not be seen in all women. You may sense some pregnancy symptoms or none at all. The top 10 signs of pregnancy are as follows:

Missed Your Periods?

One of the first signs of being pregnant is missed menstrual periods. If you have regular monthly periods, in such a case missing periods may indicate pregnancy. Many times hormonal imbalances, stress, reaction to food and contraceptive medications may delay your menstruation periods. Therefore, keep in mind all the above factors before becoming sure of being pregnant.

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On Borderlands and the Medical Humanities

duty care

Harold J. Cook, prior Director of the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine (UCL), and author of the indescribably wonderful book Matters of Exchange, has a fascinating article in the current issue of Medical Humanities. The article is entitled Borderlands: a historian’s perspective on medical humanities in the US and the UK. There is no abstract, but here is an excerpt:

Medical Humanities has developed as an important pedagogical ideal, although it is not a research field, at least not yet. Anyone with clinical, administrative, or personal responsibilities for other people is well aware of a duty of care requiring judgement. Judgement is an attribute applying as much to values as to knowledge, an ability to take appropriate decisions attuned to circumstances of person, context and moment. What one knows and has experienced provides a necessary foundation for deciding a course of action. And when patterns repeat themselves again and again, judgements can become routine. But because judgement is in the end about what best course of action to follow on particular occasions for particular people, general rules and universal truths can ever only be important helps, never giving determinative answers about how to act. Put another way, judgement is not about drawing conclusions but deciding what to do. The duty of care requires the practitioner to decide not what is true but what is best, and with the views of those under care taken into consideration, too . . . The complexities and ambiguities of the human condition, then, inform medicine profoundly, and exploring them often goes by the term ‘medical humanities’.

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On Pain, Neuroimaging, Neuroethics, and Justice

blog post

Adam Kolber, proprietor of the fine Neuroethics & Law Blog, and I are having an interesting debate on what matters with regard to the use of neuroimaging techniques to detect pain. Though pain is the subject of my dissertation, and MH Blog is not a record of my own pursuits, I do think there is enough in this exchange to render it of interest to MH Blog readers.

The discussion begins with Kolber’s assessment of a write-up that appeared in Science on the recent Pain, Neuroimaging, and the Law conference. Much of Kolber’s account focused on the potential application of neuroimaging techniques to detect malingering. This prompted my response:


Obviously, I did not have the benefit of attending the conference and engaging in the discussion. I did, however, read the write-up, and I think you know we disagree on neuroimaging and pain. You write:

“Second, we already have some evidence of correlations between chronic pain conditions and structural changes in the brain.”

Yes, indeed, and these are intriguing findings. But these are correlations, and as far as I am aware we have very little evidence of cause and effect at this point.

In any case, moving from evidence of correlations to conviction that these correlations identify the actual phenomenon itself is a big leap. Given the incredible interdependence of brain function, picking out the single function (i.e., pain) from the myriad correlates that we know are linked to any observable change is difficult, to say the least.

If I were judging such a case, saw such evidence, and had a 403 objection before me, I’d kick it out immediately, especially given how readily persons are likely to engage in neurofallacies with brain imaging.

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1000 Calorie a Day Diet

water Total calories

Opted as one of the methods to lose weight fast, 1000 calorie a day diet has quickly become popular. Keep reading to find out more about the diet plan.

Only eating 1000 calories a day sounds interesting doesn’t it? Well it does, if you are planning on losing weight in a jiffy. There are many fad diets and zone diets that assure people that they can lose an incredible amount of weight. In order to look sexy and slim again, many people trust certain diets and spend an enormous amount of time and money behind it. But nobody stops and thinks about how their diet plan choices affects their body and mind. I’m not saying that these diets don’t work; they do, but not at the cost of harming your body. Which is why, planning a well-balanced diet is highly recommended. Hence, if you are willing to choose the 1000 calorie a day diet, it is important to make a proper diet schedule that will work for with your daily lifestyle.

In the following article, we have put together 1000 calorie a day diet menu plan, that will help you stay healthy, have enough energy to continue your daily activities, and most of all, help you lose weight fast.

How to Understand The 1000 Calorie Diet?

The most important factor to understand while you’re on the 1000 calories a day for a month or 1000 calories a day for a week plan, is that once you stop and go back to your normal foods, it is likely to gain all that weight back. It’s true that this is one of the diets that work fast, but it comes with a price. And you can’t live your entire life eating only 1000 calories a day.

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Cosmetic Procedures and Botox

frown lines

Botox is the brand name of a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In large amounts, this toxin can cause botulism, which you probably associate with food poisoning. Despite the fact that one of the most serious complications of botulism is paralysis, scientists have discovered a way to use it to human advantage. Small, diluted amounts can be directly injected into specific muscles causing controlled weakening of the muscles.

The FDA approved such usage in the late 1980s upon the discovery that Botox could stop ailments like blepharospasm (uncontrolled blinking) and strabismus (lazy eye). Doctors have been using Botox for years to successfully treat wrinkles and facial creases. In April 2002, Botox gained FDA approval for treatment of moderate-to-severe frown lines between the eyebrows — called glabellar lines. However, Botox is often used for other areas of the face as well.

How Does Botox Work?

Botox blocks signals from the nerves to the muscles. The injected muscle can no longer contract, which causes the wrinkles to relax and soften.

It is most often used on forehead lines, crow’s feet (lines around the eye) and frown lines. Wrinkles caused by sun damage and gravity will not respond to Botox.

How Is a Botox Procedure Performed?

Getting Botox takes only a few minutes and no anesthesia is required. Botox is injected with a fine needle into specific muscles with only minor discomfort. It generally takes three to seven days to take full effect and it is best to avoid alcohol at least one week prior to treatment. Aspirin and anti-inflammatory medications should be stopped two weeks before treatment as well in order to reduce bruising.

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